Former England captain Lewis Moody has announced his retirement from rugby with immediate effect.
Moody has been plagued by injuries in recent years and after undergoing surgery on a shoulder problem the World Cup winner confirmed that he had played his last game as a professional rugby player.
"It is with great sadness that I have to announce my immediate retirement from all forms of rugby," Moody confirmed in a statement. "I have been very privileged to have played in some incredible teams and with some phenomenal players.
"I owe a huge debt of gratitude to all the medics and physios who have put me back together time and time again to enable me to continue to play this wonderful sport of ours."
"I would like to thank all of the coaches that I have worked with during my career, from Bracknell minis to the British and Irish Lions; they have all left their mark on me as a player.
"It goes without saying how much I value the fans who have supported me so loyally over the years, it has been one of life's singular pleasures to have played this game in front of you.
"Rugby has been my life for such a long time now, it is scary to imagine what it will be like without it, but I look forward to relishing the new opportunities and adventures that will come my way."
Moody announced his international retirement after England's disappointing World Cup campaign which was dogged by controversy.